The Chinese Have Influenced the Caribbean in a Powerful Way

The Chinese are Everywhere. In the Caribbean Too.

The Caribbean is no stranger to Chinese people. There are vast amounts of Chinese people all over the region. Caribbean countries, such as, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Cuba, Guyana and Suriname all have significant numbers Chinese residents with smaller Chinese communities in countries such as Barbados, Belize, Curacao and Aruba.

Why Did the Chinese Come to the Caribbean?

The Chinese were first brought to the Caribbean in in the mid-19th century. Slavery was abolished in the British Caribbean on 1st August 1834. This ushered in first wave of Chinese immigrants as indentured labourers to replace pre-enslaved African labourers on sugar plantations. Most of the immigrants were from China’s southern provinces, Fujian and Guangdong. Like Indians that came to the Caribbean from Uttar Pradesh and western Bihar provinces, the Chinese were from poor families on the verge of starvation.

The first wave of Chinese immigration brought Chinese labourers predominantly to Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana and Cuba. Approximately 18,000 Chinese entered the Caribbean during this period. Chinese indentured immigrants were given contracts for three, and later five-year periods, with no repatriation to China [1]. By contrast, Indian indentured labourers had a choice of passage back to India after their 10-year indentureship or 5 acres (2.5 hectares of land). Naturally, most decided to stay, including my great grandparents.

Beyond the Sugar Plantations

Although the Chinese were brought to the Caribbean in an effort to save the sugar plantations, this did not go as planned. After their indentureship, the Chinese took whatever jobs were available to them. In Trinidad, they became handicraftsmen, barbers, tailors, bakers, carpenters, goldsmiths and woodcutters. Small peasant farming and market gardening were also very popular, and they cultivated crops which they supplied to the local markets [2].

Many Chinese indentured labourers also moved to other colonies such as Guyana, Suriname, after serving their time and many others to their prized destination, mainly Canada.

What Would the Caribbean Look Like without the Chinese?

When the Chinese arrived in the mid-19th century, both the Indians and the Africans were already present in the Caribbean. The Chinese were clearly outnumbered. According to my history professor Dr. Brinsley Samaroo, between 1838 to 1917 half a million Indians came and settled across the Caribbean: 259,000 to Guyana, 147,000 to Trinidad, 38,000 to Jamaica and smaller amounts distributed across the rest of the Caribbean.

Although thousands of Chinese came, their numbers were minute compared to the numbers of Indians and Africans. Chinese culture, language, and food, were vastly different from the prevailing cultures of existing Caribbean settlers.

However, over time, and because of their hard work and commitment to their culture, the Chinese began to exert influence in the Caribbean.

Chinese Food – A Staple in Many Caribbean Countries

As the number of Chinese increased over the years, Chinese cuisine became popular in the Caribbean. The Chinese established restaurants and fast-food outlets, selling Chinese dishes to the people of the Caribbean. Dishes like Chow Mein, Fried Rice and Chinese Style Fried Chicken became popular buys for islanders. Now, Chinese cuisine in the Caribbean has added a Caribbean flair and flavour that cannot be found elsewhere.

Today, in the Caribbean, Chinese restaurants and groceries are available everywhere.

The Chinese Take Entrepreneurship to the Next Level

Their business acumen combined with their ability to successfully climb the societal ranks after indentureship, paved the way for them to flourish. Chinese immigrants soon began opening factories, restaurants, parlours, dry cleaners, tailor shops, groceries, own land and much more.

The Chinese in Trinidad and Jamaica increasingly moved up the ranks and were able to set up their own shops and small businesses. Many jostled with, and overtook, their African competitors for control of the emerging retail trade. Thus, by the end of the 19th century in these two colonies the Chinese had carved a niche for themselves as a “middlemen minority” group in the area of shopkeeping and small businesses [3].

With the success of the Chinese in the colonies, at the beginning of the 20th century, the second wave of Chinese immigrants arrived. The second wave of Chinese immigrants were mostly Chinese men, like my grandfather, in search of a better life.

The Chinese came and set up shops, groceries, ice cream parlours, and bakeries. It was easy to say that the Chinese were thriving in the British West Indies at this time. By the 1930s, in both Jamaica and Trinidad, the Chinese were owners of large factories and restaurants.

The Chinese continued to succeed and make lasting impressions on the Caribbean society. There are many Chinese-owned businesses and restaurants in Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica and Guyana. There is even a China Town in Port-of-Spain Trinidad.

Chinatown, Port of Spain, Trinidad

A Game of Chance or A Game of Change?

The Chinese presence in Trinidad has also influenced the country’s gambling culture. The National Lotteries Control Board (NLCB) game known as Play Whe, was introduced in Trinidad and Tobago by Chinese immigrants in the mid-nineteenth (19th) century [4]. The Chinese called the game “Chinapoo.” It was a numbers game played by people who were influenced by intuition, superstition, dreams and caprice.  The “Chinapoo” or “China-man jumbie” or “Whe Whe” was the basis of the original Play Whe marks.

Play Whe was developed from the Chinese ancient belief system that uses numerology, astrology, and the associations of ideas with numbers, events or even folklore to interpret and to anticipate the “grand plan”. It has been adapted to the culture of Trinidad and Tobago, as it features words from local dialect ‘corbeau’, ‘morocoy’ and ‘jammet’.

The China-man Jumbie or Chinapoo. Image Courtesy: https://peopleofthedragon.wordpress.com/

The Creolization of the Chinese

Unlike the Africans and Indians that were brought to the Caribbean, when the Chinese came, predominantly Chinese men made the journey. Chinese labourers mostly came to the Caribbean without women. Chinese women were a great minority in contrast to the thousands of Chinese men that came to the Caribbean. This led to the creolization of the Chinese, as many Chinese men started families with African and Indian women in the Caribbean. Many Chinese men also had two families, a Chinese wife and children that they left back in China and a new “creole family”.

My own grandfather, Matthew Poon, came from the Guangdong province in China at a mature age of 40. He already had a family in China. He came to Trinidad and Tobago and had many children with my Grandmother, Lucy De Souza, a young, beautiful African/European ‘creole’ girl from St. Lucia.

Five Generations of Chinese in the Caribbean

Matthew Poon 1878-1947
Bernice Arneaud, Matthew Poon's daughter
Dr. Auliana Poon, Matthew Poon's Granddaughter
Julie Aqui, Matthew Poon’s Great Granddaughter
gigi morean
Gigi Morean, Matthew Poon’s Great, Great Granddaughter

It is interesting to note that all of these female descendants of Matthew Poon are NOT pure Chinese, neither are they MALE. If born in China, we may have been killed as fetuses under the country’s one-child policy, where males (Little Emperors) are preferred. In addition, we do not look that much different from the Uyghurs in China, so we may have been put into ‘concentration’ camps.

Life is so much better in the Caribbean! And it is possible, despite our tumultuous past, to celebrate amazing and dedicated family life.

Are Chinese Racist?

The Chinese, like most other pure races in the world, be they Indian, Aryan or Jew, mostly believe that they are ‘god’s gift to humanity’.  Purity comes with superiority.  In this regard, the Chinese are not different. So, any deviation from the pure breed is a reason to feel inferior or superior as the case may be.  The mixed breeds have always been looked down upon, as they/we are everywhere.

A Chinese Man in the Caribbean who was dis-owned by his family because of his African wife (pictured with child).

It is important for the Chinese as well as the Indians, Africans and Europeans in the Caribbean to understand how lucky we have been, and to approach our differences and our diversity as gifts to be treasured; to accept this diversity with grace and dignity, rather than with arrogance and superiority.

But, today, for a person like myself to embody diversity (to be a product of most of the main races – African, Indian, Chinese and European) is indeed a gift.  And it is a hard-won gift that needs to be treasured.  It is a gift that comes at great costs – the inhumane system of slavery, indentureship, murder, rape, suicide, personal, physical and psychological abuse and more.  Let us not take these hard-won values like freedom, democracy and diversity for granted. They have been hard-won and still worth fighting for.

Notable Caribbean People of Chinese descent

The Chinese presence is still seen throughout the Caribbean and many Caribbean people are descendants of the Chinese.

Here is a list of influential people of Chinese descent from all across the region.

Jamaican-born Sir Solomon Hochoy, the last Governor of Trinidad and Tobago before Independence

• Sir Solomon Hochoy – First Governor General of T&T
• George Maxwell Richards – President of T&T 2003-2013
• Arthur Chung – First President of Guyana 1970-1980
• Lee Mark Chang – President of Senate Belize
• Raymond Choo Kong – T&T theatre actor and director
• Vincent Randy Chin – Founder of VP records (Jamaican)
• Michael Lee-Chin – Jamaican philanthropist
• Hendrick Rudolf “Henk” Chin A Sen – President of Suriname 1980-1982
• Tessanne Chin – Winner of The Voice, USA, 2013 (Jamaican)
• Anya Ayoung Chee – Winner of Project Runway, USA, 2011 (Trinidadian)

China’s Rapidly Advancing Role in the Caribbean Today

Let’s face it. China is fast advancing as an important world superpower today. Their growth and influence on trade and global economic development is phenomenal. China has been deepening its relationship with the Caribbean as with many other countries and regions long-forgotten by Western states.  China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is almost a reincarnation of its Silk Trade Route.   These developments are part of a long-term geopolitical strategy that is accompanying its rise to world superpower status. China is definitely the new colonial power on the block.  China is very likely to lead the Sixth Wave.

Is this the Next Wave of Chinese in the Caribbean?

With so many Chinese-funded projects in the Caribbean region, one wonders whether this is not yet another wave of Chinese influence in the Caribbean. This time, not only people are coming (construction workers come to work and the stay to do well, disappearing in the islands, only to open food shops at every corner and some are even opting for Caribbean passports), but capital and other geo-political influences are prevalent as well.

It will do well for the Caribbean to capitalise on its historical Chinese presence, to learn the history, culture, and language of the Chinese. This will allow the Caribbean to engage and trade on better terms with China. 

The US $3Billion Grand Bahama Port, The Bahamas – Built by a Chinese Company
The Multi-Million-Dollar National Academy for the Performing Arts, Trinidad – Built By a Chinese Company

References:

[1] (2013). “The Chinese in the Caribbean during the colonial era” in Cruse & Rhiney (Eds.), Caribbean Atlas, http://www.caribbean-atlas.com/en/themes/waves-of-colonization-and-control-in-the-caribbean/daily-lives-of-caribbean-people-under-colonialism/the-chinese-in-the-caribbean-during-the-colonial-era.html.

[2] Chinapoo, Carlton. (1988) Chinese Immigration into Trinidad 1900-1950. M.A. Thesis, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Higman, B. W. (1972). The Chinese in Trinidad. Caribbean Studies, 2:3, 21-44.

[3] Look Lai, Walton. (1998). The Chinese in the West Indies 1806-1995. A Documentary History. Kingston: The Press University of the West Indies.

[4] The History of the NLCB Play Whe.

[5] https://gop-foreignaffairs.house.gov/china-snapshot-project-the-caribbean/

Authors:

Dr. Auliana Poon

Dr. Auliana Poon is the founder and Managing Director of Leve Global and Exceptional Caribbean.

Auliana loves the Caribbean and believes in its people. Her personal mission is to change the world; to transform our societies. And this is precisely why she has spearheaded Exceptional Caribbean – a continuing mission to elevate tourism, trade and lives.

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27 thoughts on “The Chinese Have Influenced the Caribbean in a Powerful Way”

  1. Rosanna Poon-Kumar

    Totally enjoyed reading this article this morning, so much so I shared it to Trinidad and Tobago Genealogy group. I hope you don’t mind. Very interesting to read about our history and cemented my preference for being born in the Caribbean as opposed to China. Loved it from start to finish.

    1. Thanks so much, Rosanna for your kind sentiments. We thoroughly enjoyed your comments. And thanks for sharing with your group.

      If you were interested in this article, you’d definitely love this one.

  2. I like your article, it was well written and informative, however, i have to correct you on two issues you have brought up.
    The first one is the Uyghurs of China; Your knowledge of the Uyghurs are mainly western corporate propaganda, aimed against China in the geopolitical battle that is going on between China, Washington and the city of London.
    2) Colonialism and imperialism has certain connotations, as in an Empire. China will never be a colonial power, because they have analysed the repercussions of imperialism and the fact that this system is not sustainable.
    If you study their foreign policies, you will find that the relationship and signed agreements and contracts are of a very different nature. In other words, sovereignty is not signed over by any other nation.

    1. Thank you Bob for engaging with us and taking the time to comment. You are correct. Regarding the Uyghurs, we hear about castration and concentration camps because they are muslim.. We would love to hear the other side of the story. Thank you!

  3. Dear Auliana Poon,

    I have enjoyed reading your very informative blog post. I too am a descendent of the Chinese community of Trinidad and Tobago. I am currently researching for a biography of Sybil Atteck, the artist. I am also researching the Atteck family’s story from their arrival in 1862 as indentured labourers describing the two following generations born and contributing to the nation of Trinidad and Tobago. This research has given me the opportunity to rediscover my roots in Trinidad and the life and times of my family. Much of what you describe parallels my family’s story. Thank you for your story.

    1. To Bob Low, obviously you haven’t heard Wang Lang’s instructions to the people of Tibet about compulsory learning of Chinese language.

      1. It’s convenient in this day and age to conflate China and Western colonial powers. It’s easy for people who are lazy to think beyond the echo chamber built by liberal internationals. It’s the only desperate way for western imperial and colonial powers to maintain its hegemonic influence. But remember to take a pinch of salt of the narrative and labelling of China from western imperial powers. After all, isn’t it ironic that they are now finger pointing China when China has done far less colonial exercise than they have ever been?

        Tibet and Xinjiang are strategic pressure points that Western imperial powers hold to contain China. That’s pretty obvious. Of course, how China responds is subject to debate. And China is not perfect. It will make mistakes or get triggered.

        1. Thank you for these insights Jozzilee. I do not think that we understand enough to judge the Chinese. What is for sure is that they have a strategic, very, very long term vision and their methods are quite different – not just profit for a few individual big firms, but global leadership – the ultimate prize. And they are doing quite well at it thank you. If this is not a wake up call to get our act together, I don’t know what will.

          1. Thank you Auliana for sharing your very rich and diverse ancestry. Like you I share a similar history as my grandfather was from Guangdong and my grandmother was of mixed origin. The history of the Chinese in the Caribbean is very interesting. I wish I knew more of my heritage on all sides.

        2. Angela Reneaud-Lewis

          Another extremely interesting and informative article, rich in historical detail. I like the personal touch, Auliana, the beautiful photos, all telling a story. You know, I have always told myself that my own business acumen was inherited from my five percent Chinese mixture. Our diversity is truly a blessing for Caribbean people and I endorse the view that the Chinese have taken entrepreneurship to a next level.

        3. I’m also a descendant of a Trinidad Chinee. My grandfather and great grandfather (on my grandmother’s side) were both from the Guangdong region of China. As you mention, they also left a wife and family in China and then created a new wife in Trinidad. So much of what you wrote I can relate to, which is why I’m glad that you wrote a bit about Chinese bigotry in Trinidad – my father always spoke as if his Chinese heritage made him superior to all others, even when we grew up in Canada, but we did encounter a *lot* of discrimination for being mixed race, even in Canada. The whites did not like us because we were “chinks” to them and the Chinese kids did not like us because our father “stained the white shirt.” It is good to be able to claim multiple cultures as my own, but sad that we are claimed by none of them. It’s not so bad today, but when I grew up it was pretty horrible.

        4. Richard C. de Lima

          Good morning my dear Auliana,
          I write from Miami, Florida and the home of my precious daughter, Dr. Anacaona Carina de Lima-May where I have been in quarantine and recovery from the ultra-distructive force of Covid-19.

          Your article on the Chinese in the Caribbean was educational, entertaining and spiritually rewarding. Firstly, I share the common inheritance of a Chinese ancestor whose Chinese name I have on record but in Mandarin, and who was given the name James John, by the British immigration authorities somewhere in the period 1850-1870. James John, my great great grandfather was married to my great great grandmother, Marie Antoinette La Caille, a descendant of a Martiniquan slave. The Chinese DNA has been passed down through the generations to the Newallos, Leibas, Sosas, Thompsons, de Limas, Garcias, Mac Farlanes, Seegobins, Shepherds and De Souzas.

          Secondly, I share the view that we in the Caribbean should be embracing Chinese interest in our region at a far greater level absorbing their interest in both strategic and microlevel investment; opening our doors to further immigration; and providing for increased trade opportunities.

          Finally, I thank you for this wonderfully written and presented account and encourage you to continue the good work that you have been doing for more than thirty years with promoting Caribbean tourism.

          With my best regards,

          Richard C. de Lima, Miami, Florida

          1. Hi Richard, wondering how you were able to know the sharing of Chinese DNA to these surnames.
            My mother was a Thompson.

        5. Jennifer Dalgleish

          Hi. Indeed enjoyed reading your article ” The Chinese have influenced the Caribbean in a powerful way ! ” . I am a Trinidad Chinese who came to New Zealand some 40+ years ago with my husband and two boys born in Trinidad.
          I thought you may find both interesting and enjoyable the story of my Chinese grandfather ‘s history in Trindad ( and where he widely travelled the the region including parts of South America ) which has been widely covered on both Youtube and Facebook eg just punch in the following ” Sun Sui Wai Hing . Jennifer Dalgleish. ” and it should come up ! Here in New Zealand it has been covered in a major way on media ( both European and Chinese ) although the media in Trinidad have not appeared interested in covering my Grandfather’s story ! Finding and visiting my wonderful Chinese family in both Guandong and Hong Kong was an amazing experience and we now remain very close. Cheers ! Jennifer Dalgleish ( Sun Sui Wai Hing ).

        6. Hi ,I am confuse at how our surname has change ,most to our parents first name , have heard of some different reasons, but always a maybe, do you know?

          1. It typically boils down to Europeans (British and Spanish) who did not know how to spell and therefore many variations came about. Also the norms of forming ‘surnames’ were different in the West than in the Far East.

        7. Hi Jennifer, We communicated by e-mail after my father’s papers were archived at the Museum of Asian Studies at the Hoover Institute at Stanford U in California in 2011. My father worked for the KuoMinTang party in China since 1929 and was an Overseas Inspector for Chinese Affairs for the Caribbean and South America from 1946-1950. We lived in Bogota Colombia during that time. You mentioned that your grandfather James Chow Bing Quan would have known my father well. Unfortunately, like you, I don’t read Chinese at all. Colleagues have translated my father’s papers but I do not have a written translation. I also have two diaries that my father wrote, but not fully translated yet. Like your father, we still do not exactly what my dad working for the KMT party other than from 1946-1950. The interesting news is my oldest brother (by 6 years) told me recently that our mother had mentioned her grandfather Chow was a founder of Fui Toong On association. This would mean we are related. If you read this comment, please contact me at abc@gene.com. Regards, Tony Chen

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